How to Improve Your Diet To Manage Type 2 Diabetes

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Introduction

Living with diabetes requires a proactive and holistic approach to maintain stable blood sugar levels and reduce the risk of complications. Diet plays a crucial role in managing diabetes, allowing individuals to take control of their health and improve their overall well-being. In this blog post, we will explore the key components of a diabetes-friendly diet, practical tips for meal planning, and lifestyle adjustments to successfully manage diabetes.

Understanding Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic condition characterised by high blood sugar levels (1). In type 2 diabetes, the body becomes resistant to insulin or fails to produce enough insulin to regulate blood sugar effectively. Managing diabetes involves adopting a healthy lifestyle, including diet modifications, regular physical activity, and potentially medication as prescribed by healthcare professionals (1).

The Role of Diet in Diabetes Management

A well-balanced diet is essential for individuals with diabetes to maintain stable blood sugar levels and overall health (2).The primary goals of a diabetes-friendly diet are to control blood sugar levels, and reduce the risk of cardiovascular complications (2).

Here are key components to consider:

Carbohydrate Management

Carbohydrates are an essential component of a healthy and balanced diet. Carbohydrates are important for the body because they serve as a vital source of energy. Just like a car needs fuel to run, our bodies need energy to perform various functions like thinking, moving, and even breathing (3). When we eat foods containing carbohydrates, our body breaks them down into a type of sugar called glucose. Glucose is then transported through our bloodstream to our cells, where it is used as fuel to power our daily activities.

Carbohydrates also play a crucial role in brain function. The brain relies heavily on glucose as its primary energy source (3). So, when we consume carbohydrates, we are essentially providing our brain with the energy it needs to think, concentrate, and perform tasks effectively.

What Food Contain Carbohydrates?
Many foods contain carbohydrates, and they can be categorised into different groups. Here are some examples of foods that contain carbohydrates:

Grains: Foods like rice, wheat, oats, barley, quinoa, and corn
Bread and Baked Goods: Bread, bagels, rolls, tortillas, and pastries
Starchy Vegetables: Potatoes, sweet potatoes, yams, corn, peas, and winter squash
Legumes: Beans, lentils, chickpeas, and peas
Fruits: Fruits like apples, oranges, bananas, berries, grapes, and mangoes, and dried fruits such as dried apricots and raisins
Dairy Products: Milk, yoghurts and cheese
Sugary Foods and Sweets: Foods like candies, chocolates, cookies, cakes, and sugary beverages

Choosing Low-GI Carbohydates

It is important to choose complex carbohydrates with a low glycemic index (GI), such as whole grains, legumes, and non-starchy vegetables. These foods are digested more slowly, preventing blood sugar spikes (4). Portion control and mindful eating are also essential to maintain blood sugar balance.

Tips on adding more low-GI carbohydrates in your diet:
Swap white breads, pastas and rice for wholegrain options such as wholemeal pasta, brown rice and multigrain bread
Swap quick oats for rolled oats
Experiment with adding more variety of wholegrains to your diet, such as quinoa or barley

Carbohydrate Portioning and Distribution

Carbohydrates are an important part of a healthy diet, and therefore do not need to be avoided when managing type 2 diabetes. Instead, learning how to effectively distribute and count carbohydrates can be useful (5). This ensures you are able to meet your nutritional requirements, while also managing blood sugar levels. As carbohydrates directly impact blood sugar levels, it is important to distribute these foods evenly throughout the day. This will help keep blood sugar levels more stable and controlled. Eating regularly, every 3 or so hours, is a great way to achieve good carbohydrate distribution. For many people, this may mean having breakfast, morning tea, lunch, afternoon tea and dinner. Carbohydrate counting involves monitoring the amount of carbohydrates consumed in meals and snacks, allowing for better blood sugar control (5).

By working with an Accredited Practicing Dietitian, individuals can determine their carbohydrate goals and learn how to read food labels to identify the carbohydrate content of different foods. Distributing carbohydrates evenly across meals and snacks helps prevent sudden spikes or drops in blood sugar levels, promoting stability throughout the day.

Balancing Macronutrients

In addition to carbohydrates, a well-balanced diet includes proteins and healthy fats. Lean protein sources like poultry, fish, tofu, and legumes help regulate blood sugar and promote satiety. Healthy fats, such as avocados, nuts, seeds, and olive oil, contribute to heart health and overall well-being. Combining different macronutrients is important for dietary management of Type 2 Diabetes, as fats and protein can help slow digestion and lower the blood sugar response (5).

Embracing Fiber

Dietary fiber is beneficial for individuals with diabetes as it helps regulate blood sugar levels (6), promotes a feeling of fullness, and supports digestive health.

Incorporate high-fiber foods like whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts into your meals gradually.

Getting enough hydration is also crucial to ensure the effectiveness of fiber in the digestive process.

Managing Added Sugars

Reducing added sugars is an important strategy for managing diabetes.

Added sugars can be found in processed foods, sweetened beverages, and desserts. Opt for natural sweeteners or use spices to enhance flavors. Reading food labels carefully can help identify hidden sugars and make informed choices.

Practical Tips for Meal Planning and Preparation

Meal planning is an effective strategy to maintain consistency and make healthier food choices. Consider the following tips:

Portion Control

Understanding portion sizes is essential for managing blood sugar levels and managing type 2 diabetes.

An effective strategy for portion control is using the plate method:
Fill ½ of your plate with non-starchy vegetables such as leafy greens, tomato, carrot, broccoli, eggplant, capsicum
Fill ¼ of your plate with lean protein such as poulty, lean red meat, eggs, seafood, tofu or legumes
Fill ¼ of your plate with fibre-rich carbohydrates such as wholegrain bread, wholemeal pasta, brown rice, potato or sweet potato, or quinoa

Meal Planning and Prepping

Plan meals in advance to ensure a well-balanced diet. Create a weekly meal plan that includes a variety of nutrient-rich foods. Preparing meals in advance through batch cooking, portioning, and proper storage can save time and help you avoid impulsive food choices.

Mindful Eating

Practicing mindful eating techniques can improve blood sugar control. Slow down during meals, savor each bite, and pay attention to hunger and fullness cues. Avoid distractions, such as screens or multitasking, to fully enjoy your food.

Incorporating Healthy Lifestyle Practices

Alongside a diabetes-friendly diet, lifestyle adjustments are crucial for optimal diabetes management:

Regular Physical Activity

Engaging in regular exercise helps lower blood sugar levels and improve insulin sensitivity (7). Incorporate a combination of aerobic exercises, strength training, and flexibility exercises into your routine. Find activities you enjoy and make them a regular part of your life.

An Accredited Exercise Physiologist can help you build a strong understanding of the relationship between diabetes management and exercise, and help you develop a personalised exercise plan to meet your needs. Contact us at ProHealth EP to book in your consultation with one of our Accredited Exercise Physiologists.

Stress Management

Stress can affect blood sugar levels (8), so it’s important to find healthy ways to manage stress. Consider relaxation techniques like meditation, deep breathing exercises, or engaging in activities and hobbies that bring you joy.

Regular Monitoring and Professional Support

Monitor your blood sugar levels regularly to track your progress and make adjustments to your diet and lifestyle choices as needed.

Work closely with your healthcare team, including exercise physiologists, dietitians and diabetes educators, to receive personalised guidance and support throughout your diabetes management journey.

Summary

Managing diabetes with a healthy diet is crucial for maintaining stable blood sugar levels and reducing the risk of complications. By incorporating the key components of a diabetes-friendly diet, practicing portion control, and making lifestyle adjustments, you can take control of your health and improve your overall well-being. Remember, diabetes management is a lifelong journey, and every small step you take towards a healthier diet and lifestyle is a significant stride in managing your diabetes effectively.

Written by: Accredited Practicing Dietitian Jade Wrigley from Imbodi Health.

Jade is a dedicated dietitian specialising in chronic disease management, utilising her expertise to help individuals make positive lifestyle changes. With a strong focus on evidence-based practices, she offers practical guidance tailored to each client’s unique needs and medical history. Jade’s compassionate approach fosters a supportive environment where clients can make sustainable dietary adjustments to improve their health outcomes.

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